weapons during the 1950-1953 war
Today the UK Korean Friendship Association issued the following statement about
US imperialism's Germ warfare in Korea.Recently Al Jazeera TV exposed the fact that the US imperialists had indeed did use biological weapons against the Korean people during the Korean war.At the time,in the 1950s this fact was exposed by international investigators from the International Association and the Womens International Democratic Federation.International investigators included renowned British scientist Joseph Needham and lawyer Jack Gaster.
Al Jazeera whilst being critical of the DPRK nevertheless vconfirmed the DPRK's
findings and those of the international investigators.
Thus US imperialism stands condemned of the most horrendous crime ever against
humanity;attempted genocide through biological warfare.UK KFA says that the
US must be made to pay dearly for this crime.
For reference the section on Germ warfare from the book "The US imperialists Started
the Korean War" is reproduced below.
) US Imperialism’s Germ Warfare
In the Korean war the US imperialists employed various inhuman tactics such as "murder", "scorched-earth" and "strangulation" operations, but they could not bring the Korean people to their knees, nor escape the doom of defeat nor save the shattered prestige of the United States of America. In a desperate attempt to patch up the exploded myth of their "mightiness", the US ruling circles now recklessly resorted to the strength of germs to exterminate the Korean people and break through the fixed front. The dear leader Comrade Kim Jong II said:
"The US imperialists mobilized for the Korean war their vast army, navy and air force armed with modern weapons and the latest equipment as well as the armies of their 15 satellites, and conducted the most cruel and brutal warfare." (Kim Jong II, Let Us All Live and Struggle like Heroes, Eng. ed., p. 5.)
The facts of crimes committed by the US aggressors in the Korean war, using bacterial and chemical weapons in a "practical warfare" as "ideal weapons for containment", were disclosed by the statements of the US air force officers captured by the People’s Army in the act of germ warfare and were confirmed by the "investigation reports" of various international investigation commissions and other material evidences.
Employing microbe weapons as the main means of "mass destruction operations", the US ruling circles foolishly dreamed to easily attain the strategical goal which they had failed to carry out through the "scorched-earth" and
‘strangulation" operations of their air force.*
*The use of bacterial and chemical weapons was strictly banned by the law of nations as the most barbarous, inhuman mass-destruction weapons.
However, the US aggressors strenuously insisted on the use of bacterial and chemical weapons from before the Korean war.
On June 15, 1946, Orden White, head of the germ warfare branch of the US aggressor army, prattled: "I believe germ warfare, as a practical form of warfare, is quite within the bounds of possibility" (Hershel D. Meyer, The Modern History of the United States, Kyoto, p. 248.) In 1949, Truman refused the discussion in Congress of the Geneva Protocol outlawing germ warfare. The US imperialists took over the Japanese "731st Unit" and other germ warfare research institutions. They employed Ishii Shiro and other Japanese germ warfare criminals as well as those germ warfare criminals including Schreiber who served with the germ warfare command of fascist Hitler. They conducted experiments and researches on germ warfare in top secret in Japan and in the "Research and Development Command" in Baltimore, Maryland, and in the Detrik bacteriological research centre in Frederick, the US mainland.
About the objective of germ warfare the US imperialists pursued in the Korean war, the US air force prisoners said in the following vein: It was, above all, intended to "influence" the armistice negotiations by this plan (germ warfare plan) and thus bring about a satisfactory "result", and specifically, "cause lack of manpower for the front units and the rear through spreading of epidemics, which would surely shake the morale of the people to the extreme to get them to give up the ground for operations" and "outlive the failure in the ‘strangulation’ operations of the air force".*
*Docutnents on Atrocities of the US Aggressors in
Korea, Pyongyang, p. 107.
To summarize their testimonies, it may be said that in waging the germ warfare the United States wanted to "wipe out" more effectives and retrieve itself from the ignominious defeat in the "strangulation" operations in the Korean war by employing bacterial weapons as "ideal weapons for containment" that do not invite the "attention" of the world public.
To this end, the US drew up a plan for criminal germ warfare. The plan was prepared officially by the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in the autumn of 1950. According to it, germ warfare was to be waged in two stages-the stage of
experimental development and that of regular operations. In the first stage targets for the effective dropping of germ bombs would be chosen and the methods of dropping and the tactics of germ warfare developed. In the next stage areas to be contaminated would be defined and concentrated bombings carried
According to what deputy chief of the executive office for the US Secretary of the Air Force Til told to US Flight Colonel Walker M. Mafurin, in the autumn of 1950 Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Bradley, Chief of Staff of the US Air Force Vandenburg, Chief of Staff of the United States Army Collins, Chief of Naval Operations Sherman and other war-mongers huddled in conference and decided to develop the bacterial weapons, which had proved to be effective, and employ them in the Korean war at the "experimental development stage".*
Under the bacteriological operational plan of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, the US aggressors produced germ bombs in considerable quantities first in Camp Detrick in Frederick, Maryland, which was the bacteriological research centre. Then they applied them to the Republic’s prisoners of war to test their effectiveness.
As is widely known, the US army’s butcher boat No. 1,091 built for germ warfare was anchoring off Wonsan in March 1951 while putting the germ weapons to the test against our POWs. Afterwards, it committed similar bloodcurdling atrocities on our POWs in the camps on Koje and other islands.
Even according to a UP report, the US imperialists took matters needed for germ culture out of the bodies of prisoners of war and conducted 3,000 experiments in the laboratory of the boat, infecting 1,400 with serious diseases and 80 per cent of the rest with other diseases.*
* UP, May 18, 1951.
On the basis of the experiment results on the germ bomb effectiveness made on the prisoners, in October 1951 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff gave out a directive for the start of regular germ warfare in Korea and its gradual promotion from the experimental stage to regular operations.
According to the testimony of Colonel Frank H. Schewable, Chief of Staff
of the First Wing of the US Marine Corps, who was captured by the DPRK side as his plane was shot down on July 8, 1952, "the general plan for the bacteriological warfare in Korea was directed by the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in October 1951". Then the Joint Chiefs of Staff "gave an order" to Ridgway, Commander-in-Chief of the Far East Command, "to detail persons for the purpose and begin germ warfare in Korea to be gradually escalated from the initial small-scale test stage". This order was conveyed by Ridgway to Wayland, Commander of the US Far East Air Force in Tokyo, Japan. To execute the order, he summoned Everest, Commander of the US Fifth Air Force in Korea, and the Commander of the 19th Bomber Wing on Is. Okinawa which was under the command of the US Far East Air Force for conference respectively and gave them the directive to extend the criminal atrocity of germ warfare to operational action.*
* "Testimony Given by Frank H. Schewable, Colonel of the US Marine Corps, on December 6, 1952" (Documents on Atrocities of the US Aggressors in Korea, Pyongyang, pp.
According to the directive given by Wayland, Commander of the Far East Air Force, the Headquarters of the US Fifth Air Force gave orders to the wings under its command to make sure that their squadrons drop germ bombs ten times on a monthly average over designated areas beginning with January 10, 1952, in the experimental stage of the germ warfare. Concerning this Colonel Mafurin of the US Air Force stated: "Beginning with January 10, 1952, we received from the Headquarters of the Fifth Air Force regular directions as to performing germ-dropping missions. While serving with the 51st Wing we were ordered for ten germ-dropping missions on a monthly average, and two or three of them were carried out north of the Amnok River. After performing all these germ-warfare missions, airmen notified the intelligence service where germ containers had been dropped, and the information was conveyed to the Headquarters of the Fifth Air Force."*
* "Testimony Given by Colonel Walker M. Mafurin of the US Air Force on May 10, 1953" (Ibid., pp. 228-29.)
In the first stage of the germ warfare, the US aggressors attempted the following experiments: the spread and infectiousness of diseases, efficiency of various types of germ weapons and containers, their adaptability to various types of
planes in transport, their effectiveness in diverse natural features and terrains (mountainous areas, fields, highlands, isolated and connected areas, towns and countryside and others), their reaction on seasonal temperature, and the effectiveness in the coldest and warmest seasons. At the same time, the experiments were designed to develop the method of dropping and the tactics of germ warfare.*
* "Testimony Given by Frank H.Schewable, Colonel of the US Marine Corps, on December 6, \952"(Ibid.,pp. 131-32).
The first stage flights started in November 1951. The germ bombs were
dropped in the night by B-29s over the northeast and northwest areas of Korea.
Between January and March 1952 alone, for example, germ bombs were
dropped concentrically on the areas of Inchon, Cholwon, Phyonggang, Kumh-wa and the regions east of the Pukhan River in Kangwon Province; the areas of Sohung, Jaeryong, Hwangju and Suan in Hwanghae Province; Pyongyang City; the areas of Taedong, Junghwa and Phyongwon, the areas of Anju and Kaechon and the areas of Kangdong, Sunchon and Yangdok in South Phyon-gan Province; Pakchon in North Phyongan Province; and others. Besides, germ and gas shells were showered by fire arms over the front areas.
The germ bombs dropped by the US aggressors contained to their utmost limits flies, fleas, spiders, bedbugs, mosquitoes, lice, beetles, grasshoppers and other noxious insects infected with vicious epidemic bacilli such as cholera, pest and typhus.*
* According to the "Report of the Commission of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers on US Crimes in Korea" made public on March 31, 1952, different kinds of insects were found in 169 areas of north Korea. The following table shows the kinds of insects infected with epidemic bacilli as confirmed in the 15 typical localities:
No.Date (1952) Localities Insects
1 Jan.28 Phyongfang County, Kangwon Province Flies, fleas And spoders
2 Feb. 11 Cholwon County, Kangwon Province Flies, fleas And mosquitoes
3 Feb. 17 Phyongwon County, Kangwon Province Spiders
4 Feb. 18 Anju County, S. Phyongan Province Flies and fleas
5 Feb. 23 Phyongwon County, S. Phyongan Province Flies
6 Feb. 25 Munchon County, Kangwon Province Spiders and other insects
7 Feb. 26 Taedong County, S. Phyongan Province Flies and spiders
8 Feb. 27 Kangdong County, S. Phyongan Province Flies
9 Feb. 27 Hwanghae Province (military unit) Lice
10 Feb. 27 Sunchon County, S. Phyongan Province Flies
11 Feb. 29 Suan County, Hwanghae Province Flies and other insects
12 Mar. 1 Cholsan County, N. Phyongan Province Flies and fleas
13 Mar. 1 Yangdok County, S. Phyongan Province Flies and other insects
14 Mar. 2 Kowon County, S. Hamgyong Province Fleas and other insects
15 Mar. 4 Central District, Pyongyang Flies
"Report of the Commission of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers on US Crimes in Korea" dated March 31, 1952 (Ibid., p. 363).
There broke out cases of pest and typhus never known before, to take a toll of precious lives of people, in the places which were made victims of the US atrocity of germ warfare.
* "Report of the International Scientific Investigation Commission on Atrocities of Germ Warfare Committed by the US Imperialists in Korea" dated August 31, 1952 says in part: "The Korean and Chinese people are made the very targets of bacterial weapons. "The bacterial weapons were employed by US units by different methods. Some of them seem to be the improved ones of the kinds employed by Japanese troops in World War II....
"The Commission was obliged to bow before evidences and bear testimony to the fact that such inhuman methods were actually used in spite of the general censure of the world people." (Documents on Atrocities of the US Aggressors in Korea, Pyongyang, p. 447.)
According to the criminal plan for germ warfare, the US aggressors went gradually over from the experimental stage to the operational stage. They schemed to extend its scope to most of the northern half of the Republic.
In late May 1952, Berkers, Commander of the US Fifth Air Force, who had taken the place of Everest gave instruction to Jerome, Commander of the First Wing of the US Marine Corps, to further escalate the germ warfare.
Jerome immediately summoned staff members of the First Wing for conference to execute the directive of Berkers. At the conference he said, "I was just given the directive to make a great change in this action (germ warfare-Quoter)." Referring to the plan for the operational stage of the germ warfare, he added: "General Berkers urged us to create the infected belt running across the central part of north Korea, The First Wing of the Air Force of the Marine Corps is assigned to the left flank, to which belong Sinanju, Kunu-ri and their neighbourhood and the section between them. The Air Force is assigned to the rather bigger section of the central part ranging from Kunu-ri to the spot 30 miles away from the east coast. The Navy takes charge of the right flank".*
^"Testimony Given by Frank H. Schewable, Colonel of the US Marine Corps, on December 19, 1952" (Ibid., pp. 139-40).
Upon the directive of Berkers, Commander of the US Fifth Air Force, the US aggressors planned to develop the germ warfare on an operational stage by concentrated strikes on the fixed areas of the northern half and the repeated contamination of them at an interval of ten days.
The US aggressors fixed these areas along line running across the central part of the northern half of the Republic, because they wanted to paralyze and cut the supply line to the front. This plan fully revealed the miserable image and vulnerability of the US imperialists who tried to retrieve themselves from the defeat at the front on the strength of insects and bacilli, as their air force had no chance of success in the "strangulation" operation.
At the operational stage, they set numerous squadrons in motion. In 1952 alone, they mobilized the 3rd and 17th Light Bomber Wings of the US Air Force, the 4th and 51st Fighter-bomber Wings, the 8th, 18th, 49th, 58th and
474th Fighter-bomber Wings, and the 1st Wing of the Air Force of the Marine Corps for the atrocious germ warfare. The mission of germ bomb dropping was carried out by B-29 and B-26 bombers, F-51, F-80, F-84 and F-86 fighters and fighter-bombers of the US Air Force of Marine Corps.*
* Documents on Atrocities of the US Aggressors in Korea, Pyongyang, p. 108.
In November 1952, Chief of Staff of the US Air Force Vandenburg himself flew into Korea to direct the general course of germ warfare and inspect its results together with Barkers, Commander of the US Fifth Air Force.
To cover up their germ warfare crime, the US aggressors, on Vandenburg’s directive, waged the germ warfare mainly by night. In this, they combined the dropping of germ bombs with reconnaissance and bombings. They kept all matters related to the microbe war in top secret and had all the battle reports coded.*
* Ibid., p. no.
Germ bombs were mainly dropped over the most vulnerable targets such as densely populated areas, areas stationed by troops, traffic junctures, roads, railways and bridges. They made no scruple to commit crimes by dropping them on rivers and reservoirs, too.
Sinanju is a town most severely affected by the atrocious germ warfare of the US aggressors. They made a germ attack on Sinanju for five successive days from January 10, 1953, mobilizing, on an average, 480 planes every day. Thus, they were the first to launch the disgraceful largest-scale germ warfare in the war history of the world.
The US aggressors openly launched chemical warfare along with the germ one. Between May and June, 1951, three B-29s dropped gas bombs on Hupho-ri, Jukdong-ri, Ryongjong-ri and Ryongsu-ri of Samhwa Sub-County around Nampho, causing 1,379 casualties. Gas bombs were also dropped on Yong-song-ri and Wonchon-ri in Hwanghae Province on August 1 and on Hakson-ri north of Wonsan on January 9, 1952, thus committing a criminal atrocity of killing innocent people.
The US germ warfare outrages were perpetrated with the active support of the Japanese militarists, who had "experience" of germ warfare.
The Japanese militarists rendered active assistance to the US aggressors in the drawing up of a barbarous bacteriological war plan. They turned the territo-
ry of Japan into an attack and supply base for conducting germ warfare and provided the Americans with information on the "experience"* they had gained in their research into germ weapons and in the production of germ bombs and on methods for conducting bacteriological warfare and their latest achievements in that field.
* During the Second World War the Japanese aggressors perpetrated the criminal act of using germ weapons for the first time in history to massacre Chinese, Russian and Korean people in northeast China. For this purpose, they organized such germ weapon research organs as "Unit 731" and "Unit 100", special army units, in northeast China, headed by Ishii Shiro, army surgeon lieutenant-general of the former Japanese army. In the name of a "medical research centre1’, the special units had libraries, laboratories, plants for the manufacture of germ weapons and prisons, all requirements for research into bacteriology and experiments on it. Thus they cultured cholera, typhus, pests and other germs in rats, fleas and other insects and animals and used POWs in experiments for their war of human butchery. Their "special plants" near Haerbin and Changchun produced many types of bacteriological weapons including fabbit to use them in germ warfare. They served to be the wherewithal of US imperialists in their germ warfare.
(Data of the Trials of the Servicemen of the Former Japanese Army Accused on the Charge of Preparation and Application of Germ Weapons, Moscow, the Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950 edition, pp. 130-31.)
As they admit, with neither germ nor chemical warfare could the US aggressors bring the Korean people to their knees or retrieve themselves from ignominious defeat.*
* In his book entitled The United States Defeated, Yoshitake Yojo wrote: "The germ warfare waged by the US imperialists only proved complete military defeat of the UN troops. Bacterial weapons, before being denounced for inhumanity, immorality and barbarity, are lethal weapons for the defeated militarily. What awaits ahead of those who use them is the judgement of military defeat" (Yoshitake Yojo, The United States Defeated, Tokyo, p. 98).
Upholding the order of the Military Commission issued by President Kim II Sung, the entire Korean people launched a powerful mass movement to cope with germ warfare. They placed observation posts and anti-epidemic corps in different parts, discovered germ bombs and germ carriers scattered by
the US aggressors and thus prevented possible damage in good time. This foiled the aggressive schemes of the US imperialists to massacre our people and cut off the supply line to the front. Their inhuman atrocity of germ warfare was made the target of the world people’s unanimous curse and denunciation and thus they met ever more serious political and moral defeat.
The report of the Commission of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers on US Crimes in Korea dated March 31, 1952, denounced the US imperialists, saying: "The use of such inhuman weapons as germ weapons must be taken to indicate a new degree of savagery in the conduct of so-called civilized states which must threaten every man, woman and child".*] In their joint statement on April 2nd, 1952, home and foreign journalists vehemently denounced them: "We call on the conscience of the whole world to demand the cessation of such horrible crimes against humanity, which contain the seeds of destroying all people, and the punishment of the criminals responsible for it."*2
*1. Documents on Atrocities of The US Aggressors in Korea, Pyongyang, p. 391. *2. Ibid., p. 398.
As their aggressive scheme to bring the Korean war to a close in reliance on their military and technical superiority was doomed to failure, the US aggressors could not but resort to such a most barbarous and inhuman means of war as germ warfare which was banned by international law. This atrocity was clear proof of their last-ditch struggle. At the same time, it showed that they were so weak and barbarous as to try to find a way out with the help of insects. It also revealed once again before the whole world that the US aggressors, descendants of the murderous founders of the United States of America, were no other than cannibals of the 20th century and two-legged beasts in the guise of a "civilized nation" who had no scruples of employing any brutal methods and means of war to achieve their aggressive aim.*
* David W. Conde wrote that of the 38 US prisoners of war who had confessed to their participation in the atrocious germ warfare in Korea, ten openly retracted their confession in their letters sent after their return home to the UN Secretary-General on October 26, 1953. But he added with scorn that "at that time some observers held that if all the 38 prisoners had made similar statements the position of the United States would have been firmer". (David W. Conde, An Untold History of Modern Korea, Tokyo, Vol. II, p. 411.)